This animated map reveals how the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent have advanced for the reason that partition of 1947.
Seventy-five years in the past, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, a British lawyer, was appointed to attract the boundaries that may divide British-ruled India into two new, impartial nations: Hindu-majority India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.
He had solely 5 weeks to take action, whereas he had by no means traveled to India, which had been underneath British rule for 200 years.
The traces he drew are one of many largest compelled mass exodus in trendy historical past, displacing some 15 million individuals and killing greater than two million.
The border between the 2 nations grew to become generally known as the Radcliffe Line and was formally declared on August 17, 1947, a number of days after the independence of India and Pakistan.
Radcliffe was stated to base his traces on the inhabitants of Muslims and Hindus, amongst “different elements”. These further elements had been by no means formally outlined, however are believed to incorporate financial and communication assets equivalent to irrigation channels and railway traces.
Toggle via the choices displayed on the graphic under and draw traces on the map relying on the way you assume Radcliffe drew the boundaries.
The data on inhabitants, railways and rivers is predicated on maps collected from The Imperial Gazetteer of India of 1931.
How India, Pakistan and Bangladesh had been fashioned?
The method of partition was not simple. Along with British-controlled territories, the subcontinent additionally included greater than 500 sovereign principalities dominated by native kings, together with a number of different territories managed by French, Portuguese or Omani rule.
After independence, the British gave the princely states the choice to affix India or Pakistan – by signing the Instrument of Accession – or to stay impartial. A few of these territories and princely states didn’t turn into a part of India or Pakistan till lately.
In the present day, Kashmir is the one area of British India that has not absolutely built-in into one of many two nations or achieved political independence.
Within the following two-minute animation, Al Jazeera seems at how the Indian subcontinent was divided by the British in 1947 and the way it has modified since then.
In August 1947, the British ended their 200-year rule over the Indian subcontinent and break up it into two separate nations, Hindu-majority India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan. This is how the nation got here to be.@AJEnglish pic.twitter.com/105JwLPIRS
— AJ Labs (@ajlabs) 12 August 2022